La ocupación ilegal de inmuebles, que aparentemente no tienen dueños y lucen abandonados, es una problemática difícil de controlar. Si no toman los recaudos necesarios de seguridad, para los propietarios es tedioso recuperarlos por los largos tiempos judiciales y los costos que esto ocasiona. Un caso conocido en Villa Urquiza.

Por Sergio Calandra
fiscal@periodicoelbarrio.com.ar
Twitter: @scalandra
YouTube: Fiscal de las Calles

Para todos los que nacimos a partir de la década del sesenta -y también en años anteriores- nos era muy común ver a nuestras abuelas y bisabuelas (alias las “Totas y Porotas”) sentadas en la vereda de la puerta de sus casas ejerciendo una especie de inocente “control vecinal” ciudadano. Ellas conocían las vicisitudes y movimientos de cada cuadra, tanto de vecinos habitués como de todo aquello extraño que sucedía diariamente: mudanzas, fallecimientos, rupturas matrimoniales, nacimientos, amoríos adolescentes, romances, amantes clandestinos…
Como de todo estaban enteradas, menos mal que en esa época no existían los celulares y las redes sociales sino flor de lío se hubiera armado si compartían fotos y chimentos como se hace hoy en día. Al margen de que muchos vecinos no estaban de acuerdo porque les restaba privacidad, esta vieja práctica ayudaba a que si en una propiedad vacía o abandonada alguien quería ingresar, para robar o usurparla, enseguida era detectado y se podía llamar a la Policía para resolver la situación inmediatamente.
Hoy en día, en cambio, sucede que el contacto directo entre los vecinos es infrecuente. Quizás porque hay más cantidad de departamentos y viviendas tipo PH en cada cuadra, sumado a que antes habían casas más grandes pero con muchas menos personas si lo comparamos con la forma de vida actual. Parece que nadie tiene tiempo ni ganas aunque sea para mirar y saludar al otro. La incomunicación verbal está cada día más presente.

Precauciones
Muchos propietarios, familiares y herederos que no viven de manera permanente en sus inmuebles -o que por distintos motivos están desocupados- pueden sufrir en algún momento situaciones de intrusión si no toman los recaudos pertinentes. En el caso de que sean propiedades que ya se vendieron y que van a ser demolidas o recicladas, lo ideal es que sigan viviendo personas allí hasta que comiencen las obras. En su defecto, se deben colocar grandes empalizadas para bloquear la entrada o tapiar con ladrillos puertas y aberturas.
Si la vivienda no va a demolerse y permanecerá vacía por un largo período de tiempo, hay que protegerla con una buena cantidad de rejas y alarmas. Otra herramienta efectiva es dejar la propiedad con indicios de que alguien está morando en ella, como luces prendidas y ropa tendida en la terraza para simular que hay personas dentro.

En peligro
En propiedades privadas no habitadas o abandonadas pueden aparecer “merodeadores” que hacen tareas de inteligencia previa y no descansan nunca. Identifican aquellos lugares que no tienen movimiento ni habitantes aparentes a la vista e investigan muy sigilosamente cómo andan sus cerraduras y si están trabadas por dentro sus puertas. Cuando se dan las condiciones -y nadie los ve- proceden a ocuparlas e intrusarlas, aunque se encuentren en condiciones muy precarias de habitabilidad. Por ejemplo sin servicios de electricidad, gas y agua corriente, sin sus techos o directamente sin vidrios que protejan ventanas y puertas.

Sobre el bulevar Mendoza, entre Ávalos y Bauness, todo este edificio a medio terminar está tomado desde hace más de veinte años.

Suciedad
Algunas de las propiedades tomadas desde hace varios años muchas veces están ocupadas por personas que viven de la venta de todo lo que recogen y recuperan de las calles, el vulgarmente llamado “cirujeo”. Acumulan, de manera precaria, todo tipo de mercaderías, las acopian en la entrada y en la vereda estacionan sus carros a tracción a sangre. Todo esto hace que se genere mucha suciedad y se aglutinen roedores, lo que emana muy feos olores y junta moscas y mosquitos.
Los vecinos linderos -puntualmente los que viven justo al lado de esas propiedades- son los que más sufren, ya que están rodeados involuntariamente de residuos y materiales de dudosa procedencia. Y que el vecino damnificado tampoco tenga la mala suerte de sufrir rajaduras, filtraciones o humedad proveniente del inmueble tomado, ya que lograr soluciones es algo casi imposible.

Sucesiones interminables
En muchos de los casos de viviendas usurpadas se presentan múltiples herederos como propietarios: hay ejemplos de hasta 25 hermanos que resultaron participantes en algunas declaratorias. Y, para colmo de males, muchos van falleciendo y sus descendientes tienen que continuar haciendo sucesiones, algunos con domicilios recónditos en el interior del país y otros en el exterior sin residencia fija, imposibles de ubicar.
Al ser tantas partes las que tienen para repartirse porcentajes proporcionales mínimos, ceden en el intento y de esto se aprovechan los usurpadores, que muchas veces saben de la situación particular de cada inmueble y es ahí cuando se aprovechan. También hay propietarios jubilados con edad avanzada que no cuentan con los recursos económicos para poder afrontar los costos de abogados y todo lo referido a los honorarios, pasos procesales, notificaciones con cédulas y cartas documento.

Santa usurpación
Pero no solamente las casas son blanco fácil: hay casos puntuales donde hasta se han ocupado edificios enteros. Los propietarios originales nunca pudieron recuperarlos ya sea porque las empresas constructoras quebraron o porque nunca lograron terminarlos por falta de habilitaciones municipales. Un ejemplo testigo y emblemático se encuentra en el coqueto bulevar Mendoza, entre Bauness y Ávalos, pleno barrio de Villa Urquiza.
Hay allí un edificio de 14 pisos a medio terminar que fue tomado a mediados de la década del 90 por numerosas familias que no eran sus propietarias. Se trata de un inmueble construido por la quebrada empresa San Sebastián, que operaba con habilitaciones truchas gestionadas por el entonces presidente del Concejo Deliberante José Manuel Pico. En 2002, el funcionario recibió una condena de 14 años de prisión por haber estafado a 534 personas mediante ventas irregulares de departamentos.
El caso de este edificio del bulevar Mendoza forma parte de una gran maraña judicial que lleva más de dos décadas años sin solución. La forma en que viven las personas que habitan el lugar es verdaderamente inhumana, ya que no tienen agua corriente ni cloacas y menos un ascensor para los 14 pisos de altura. A esto se suma el riesgo de desmoronamiento de mampostería y el peligro de caer al vacío por la ausencia de balcones y persianas. El edificio tampoco cuenta con red de gas, por lo que puede abastecerse solamente con garrafas.

Lenta justicia
Como la Justicia no cuenta con procedimientos y metodologías ágiles y efectivas para defender los derechos de los propietarios ante casos de intrusiones, inevitablemente se generan conflictos. El Estado, el Poder Judicial y la fuerza pública tendrían que actuar en conjunto para velar por los derechos de todos, ya sean propietarios o gente sin hogar. Pero, para que esto suceda, como sociedad nos falta que pase mucha agua debajo del puente. Y un cambio en la mentalidad de todos.

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