Tomando de referencia viejos avisos, los aumentos superaron la cotización del dólar. Atados durante una década a la moneda estadounidense, los bienes y servicios tuvieron un valor de referencia hasta la crisis de 2001. A partir de entonces, la remarcación de precios no siempre fue acorde al valor real de los productos. El peso argentino se devaluó 1.400 % en 15 años, pero muchos costos se incrementaron hasta 2.500 %.

Desde el 6 de enero de 2002, cuando la economía argentina se apartó de la Ley de Convertibilidad, el peso argentino comenzó una lenta pero inexorable devaluación. A las pocas horas de adoptada la medida, perdió un 40 % de su valor y con el paso de los meses disminuyó casi un 200 % su valor respecto a la moneda norteamericana. Así se mantuvo hasta casi fines de la primera década del siglo. Cada dólar estadounidense costaba por entonces tres pesos argentinos.
Sin embargo, quizá como consecuencia de una década de paridad cambiaria e inflación cero, pero también de la inercia de la recesión económica, los empresarios y los comerciantes no remarcaron inmediatamente los precios. Hubo de hecho un lapso de no menos de cuatro años, entre comienzos de 2002 y finales de 2005, en los que la inflación fue insignificante. Ese período coincidió con la gestión de Roberto Lavagna, vecino de Saavedra, al frente del Ministerio de Economía. Tras obtener Néstor Kirchner el respaldo político del que carecía en las elecciones legislativas de 2005, el entonces Presidente de la Nación optó por tomar otra dirección en materia económica y le pidió la renuncia al funcionario, quien venía ejerciendo el cargo desde el mandato presidencial interino de Eduardo Duhalde.
A partir de 2006, con Felisa Miceli -otra vecina de Saavedra- al frente de la cartera de Hacienda, la inflación comenzó a ser un inconveniente para el bolsillo de los argentinos. Los precios comenzaron a modificarse con una frecuencia que habíamos olvidado, lejana aun a la que acabó con el gobierno de Raúl Alfonsín a comienzos de 1989. No obstante, las paritarias salariales compensaban la pérdida del poder adquisitivo y quizá por eso mismo la demanda nunca cayó. En ese contexto, la espiral inflacionaria lleva ya una década. En términos cambiarios, el peso se depreció un 1.400 % en quince años y llevó al dólar, al cierre de esta edición, a una cotización cercana a los 16 pesos. ¿Pero cuánto costaba la vida en 2001, cuando el dólar valía un peso, o en 2006, cuando se ofrecía a tres? Dicen que las comparaciones son odiosas: es cuestión de hacer la prueba.

Aviso 2001 Nuevo Hogar
Meses antes del desastre
Poco tiempo antes de la salida de la Convertibilidad, los precios que podían leerse en los avisos del periódico El Barrio estaban dolarizados. Así, un geriátrico ofrecía la habitación desde $ 500 mensuales: hoy la cuota no baja de $ 10.000 (aumento del 1.900 %). Un mercadito promocionaba dos kilos de naranjas, dos de mandarinas, uno de manzanas, uno de peras y uno de bananas por $ 4,90. Ese combo ronda en la actualidad $ 120 (aumento del 2.300 %). Una carnicería difundía una tentadora oferta: asado para cuatro personas (tira de asado, chorizo, morcilla y chinchulín) a $ 9,90, en tanto que un gimnasio de categoría promocionaba el pase libre a $ 40 mensuales, bajo el sistema de débito automático. En ambos casos, los incrementos rondan el 2.400 % a valores de hoy. En el caso de la carne, sabemos que hubo especulación.
La gastronomía siempre es una buena referencia. El valor de la porción de paella en una pescadería tradicional era de $ 3,50 hace 15 años, en tanto hoy vale $ 70: 1.900 % de aumento. Dos grandes de muzzarella y una grande de fugazza al óleo se conseguían al módico precio de $ 10. Esa misma oferta no baja hoy de $ 300, lo que se traduce en un 2.900 % de inflación. En una confitería 48 triples surtidos podían adquirirse a $ 12, mientras hoy esa oferta trepa a $ 500 ¡4.000 % de aumento!
Lo interesante de este fenómeno es que entre 2002 y 2006 no hubo una escalada de precios, como sí se advirtió en la última década. Una pizza grande de muzzarella más seis empanadas o una docena de empanadas, con el dólar a $ 3, costaban $ 14. Menos de cinco dólares. Hoy una docena de empanadas sale como barata $ 160, es decir 10 dólares. El menú infantil en un restaurante, que incluía plato principal, bebida y postre, tenía un valor de $ 12 (cuatro dólares). Hoy cuesta diez veces más. Los 48 triples surtidos estaban a $ 39, precio que con un dólar a $ 3 guardaba relación con los $ 12 de 2001. Un pollo con guarnición valía en 2006 sólo $ 22 o siete dólares. ¿A cuánto se consigue hoy como barato? ¿$ 200? Queda claro que el dólar dejó de ser referencia, salvo para los combustibles y hasta ahí nomás.

Aviso 2001 Pindal
Lavar el auto por $ 13, consultar una abogada por $ 50, aprender guitarra por $ 12 la hora, arreglarse las manos por $ 10, amoblar el living por $ 450, viajar a Colonia del Sacramento por $ 225, fumigar la casa por $ 40 o almorzar en un buen restaurante por $ 16 era posible a mediados de 2006, cuando la inflación todavía no hacía mella en el salario de los trabajadores. Con el paso de los años muchos comercios, algunos de ellos desaparecidos, aumentaron los precios en proporciones exageradas. Las razones podrá explicarlas algún economista, pero es probable que la sostenida demanda haya generado una mayor cotización de la oferta.
Finalizaremos diciendo que en 1991, cuando entró en vigencia la Ley de Convertibilidad y un dólar costaba un peso, quien disponía de 110.000 dólares podía comprarse una casa con fondo, quincho y pileta en el Barrio Cornelio Saavedra. Hoy se necesita un monto cinco veces mayor para aspirar a una propiedad semejante…

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