Con un grupo de colegas de la Comuna 12, realiza estudios estadísticos sobre la situación económica que atraviesan los negocios del barrio. Cuenta que, producto de la pérdida del poder adquisitivo, la rentabilidad bajó un 35 por ciento. Es hijo de Miguel Haddad, secretario de la Asociación de Comerciantes de Villa Urquiza.

Por Tomás Labrit
tlabrit@periodicoelbarrio.com.ar

-¿Cómo está la situación comercial?
-Complicada. La caída de ventas está preocupando muchísimo a todo el comercio. El último informe de CAME (Confederación Argentina de la Mediana Empresa) muestra una caída en las ventas en los primeros cinco meses del año y el dato coincide con el mismo período de 2017, algo que no ocurría hace muchísimo tiempo. Cuando empezás a investigar las causas, los comerciantes coincidimos en que es producto de la pérdida de poder adquisitivo. Está tan marcado esto que, por primera vez en el año, la industria pyme tuvo un mes entero de caída de la producción. Es decir que el freno que percibimos en el comercio ya empieza a tener eco en toda la cadena de distribución. Es tan grave la situación que las industrias proveedoras empezaron a tener grandes problemas para cobrar, porque nosotros no recaudamos el dinero que teníamos proyectado. En julio creíamos que íbamos a vender más, por el aguinaldo de los asalariados, pero pasó de largo.

-Contame de la iniciativa que llevás adelante junto a otros colegas de la zona.
-Somos un grupo de vecinos y comerciantes de Villa Urquiza, Saavedra, Villa Pueyrredon y Parque Chas que trabajamos sin tener una institución que nos agrupe y nos pusimos a hacer estadísticas en nuestros barrios. Empezamos a preguntar y a hacer encuestas mensuales que reflejan cómo está la situación. En una de ellas, el 80 por ciento de los asalariados consultados respondió que usó el aguinaldo para ponerse al día con tarjetas de crédito, con algún familiar, con un pequeño préstamo personal… Por las vacaciones de invierno, julio siempre es un mes de grandes oportunidades y la verdad es que este año no lo vimos reflejado en los comercios, por lo menos en los de Villa Urquiza. Te doy un dato que tiene que ver con mi rubro, el calzado infantil: históricamente, 20 días antes del Día del Niño (este año es el 19 de agosto) ya empezamos a tener una demanda incremental de la gente del interior que empieza a comprar sus regalos. Yo trabajo con MercadoLibre y el año pasado, a esta altura, tenía un 35 por ciento más de ventas. La caída es mucha.

-Es, más o menos, la inflación estimada para este año.
-Claro. Los productos importados incrementaron sus precios un 60 por ciento entre el año pasado y éste. Unas zapatillas infantiles con luces se vendían a 1.100 pesos el año pasado y hoy las tengo en 1.900. Los costos dolarizados van en detrimento de los comerciantes, porque perdemos rentabilidad.

-¿Alquilás o sos dueño?
-Alquilo. Ahí hay otro componente importante para los comerciantes. Me pongo del lado del tipo que es dueño de un local y entiendo que necesite aumentar el valor del alquiler, porque en su vida también aumenta todo, pero si las ventas no me generan los recursos suficientes pasa lo que está pasando. Dentro del barrio hay un montón de comercios, sobre todo en la Siberia y el rincón pegado a Saavedra, que están cerrando sus puertas porque no pueden bancar los costos. Los que estamos en la zona céntrica tenemos la suerte de contar con el público que baja del tren, subte y colectivo, entonces el efecto de caída es más lento. El otro drama que ocurre es el día después al cierre del comercio: ¿quién se ocupa de esa persona?

-¿Hace cuánto estás acá, en Bauness 2327? ¿Sos comerciante desde siempre?
-Hace tres años y medio que atiendo este local. Vengo de una familia de comerciantes. Mi viejo (Miguel Ángel Haddad, presidente de la Comisión Centenario de Villa Urquiza y secretario de la Asociación de Comerciantes) fue empresario. Tenía una fábrica textil en San Martín y, en la crisis provocada por la invasión de productos importados durante la década del 90, se vio obligado a bajar las cortinas. Se dedicaba a la fabricación textil para la confección de camisas, con una dotación de 80 empleados. La empresa había sido fundada por mi abuelo en el año 55. Somos todos descendientes de sirios. Cuando tuvo que cerrar, salía más barato traer de China tres camisas terminadas que hacer la cantidad de metros de tela para confeccionar acá. Y hoy también se está viendo algo de eso. Cuando arranqué con este local, el 20 por ciento de los productos que yo ofrecía eran importados y el 80 por ciento restante nacionales. Hoy tengo casi el 70 por ciento de importados y solamente un 30 nacional. Esas son fuentes de trabajo que se pierden, porque se cierran talleres. La pérdida de la industria nacional nos hace perder identidad como país.

-¿Cómo se sale de esta crisis?
-No es algo que se pueda resolver desde la microeconomía, esto es más macro. El puntapié inicial tiene que ser mejorar el poder adquisitivo de los asalariados. Cuando vos cerrás paritarias por debajo de la inflación y aumentás los servicios básicos, pasa esto. A la gente no le alcanza para consumir.

-¿Cuáles son las perspectivas?
-No son buenas. Y no lo digo yo, sino el propio Presidente de la Nación. Se vienen meses difíciles.

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